Dr. Ata Kalirad received his BSc in cell & molecular biology from the University of Tehran in 2011 and his PhD in evolution from the University of Houston in 2016. During his PhD, he worked under the supervision of Dr. Ricardo B. R. Azevedo on the question of speciation, which resulted in proposing the “spiraling complexity model” to explain the effect of epistasis on the accumulation of genetic incompatibilities. He has been working at the School of Biological Sciences (IPM) since 2017, focusing on the role of stochasticity in living systems.